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Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest

UC Davis researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
The earliest known usage of tobacco in the Pacific Northwest was smoked using a pipe similar to this one, according to Shannon Tushingham, a UC Davis archaeology research associate. Credit: Shannon Tushingham

(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.

"The study demonstrates that was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the .

Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.

Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.

v. 调查,检查,测量,勘定,纵览,环视
control
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Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.

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Whether of left or right, they present themselves as representatives of the common people against elites and unworthy outsiders; make a visceral connection with followers as charismatic leaders; manipulate that connection for their own advancement, frequently by lying egregiously; and threaten established rules of conduct and constraining institutions as enemies of the popular will that they embody.
中国现在不仅“完全与世界一体化”,还可能正在开始退出这一状态,把供应链的更多环节带回国内,因此除非非洲能够成功地走上中国道路,否则“我想,现在我们将回到这样一种情形:我们认为没有任何特殊原因支持贸易增速超过GDP增速,”他补充说。
Forbes found 1,810 billionaires this year, down from last year's record of 1,826. The aggregate net worth of the billionaires was 6.48trillion dollars, 570billion dollars less than last year.
Elspeth Cheung, head of BrandZ valuation at Millward Brown, says: “The top 10 used to be dominated by consumer goods. This year, it’s technology.”
adj. 分开的,各自的,
But there remains a mass of old master paintings in dealers’ stocks — and in collectors’ minds — whose asking prices still hark back to the age of Tommy Cooper. Unfortunately, in today’s market, and at those prices, many of these paintings will be as sellable as that Stradivarius canvas with the hole in it.
进口价值的增长是在强势美元推高进口商成本的情况下实现的。11月份以人民币计算的进口增长幅度则为同比增长13%,反映了人民币的相对弱势。

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The school ranks first for alumni satisfaction.
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在苏富比的拍卖会上,有少数几幅作品的拍卖价格远高于预估价,比如德比的约瑟夫·赖特(Joseph Wright of Derby)1780年的一幅风景画,它描绘的是奥古斯都大帝的女儿朱莉叶(Julia)被流放到萨莱诺湾(Gulf of Salerno)的一个洞穴里。

The study is available online.


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Citation: Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest (2013, March 1) retrieved 18 November 2020 from https://phys.org/news/2013-03-uncover-earliest-tobacco-pacific-northwest.html
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