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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

This is a story about six friends with precarious love lives who spend their days sitting in a cafe sipping coffee from oversized mugs. Who’d have thought this premise would go on to become one of the most influential sitcoms of all time?

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“能自己当老板,经营自己的公司,我感到很骄傲,”凯蒂在刚过去的夏天对福布斯100位名人封面故事说,“我是一名企业家,并且没有刻意回避这一身份。事实上,我很珍惜自己当老板的体验。”
['traigl]
单词charity 联想记忆:

Antarctic
家用电器行业的平均价值上升了74%,是10大行业里上升幅度最大的。电子商务和零售业位居其后,价值上涨了69%。医疗卫生保健行业上升32%。金融服务行业上升了18%,酒类行业上升了17%。房地产增长了15%,饮食行业上升了11%。
Paddington 2

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

2016年中国水性漆市场将迈向一个新台阶

“I don’t think there are any companies that have survived big assaults from two of the biggest beasts in the hedge fund jungle,” says Ms Simpson of Calpers. “He is cool, calm and collected — the corporate exemplar of ‘Keep calm and carry on’.”
Before long, Russell fell in love with inmate named Phillip Morris. After Morris was released, Russell again escaped prison by calling the clerk's office, impersonating a judge and drastically reducing his own bail. He was caught and escaped two more times to be with Morris, at one point faking his own death. He is now serving a life sentence but admits to finding his film portrayal pretty exciting.
v. 构成,把 ...

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

“The employee said she was going out to buy boots, but was never seen again.”
在简历中提到你的孩子和嗜好没有任何好处。永远不要说,“我的孩子上大学了,我就能安心回到工作岗位了。”
张景岫说:“学生本身并不适合创业。”他补充说道,职业院校的学生比大学生更渴望自主创业。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • “一般人很难发现你们在做什么,但是你的异常却很容易被经理们捕捉到。”凯说。许多情况下,你漫不经心,或者如凯描述得那样:“精神完全不在状态。”或许你过去常常积极参与会议,但是你现在沉默了。或许你没有过去做得多了。或许你不再对你要做的案子感兴趣了。
  • 搜房裁员风波:合同造假称被默许 根源是效率过低
  • The drama was broadcast during the summer holiday, targeting young audiences who prefer fantasies and romances.
  • 智慧城市政策支持 装饰物联网大有可为
  • 3D打印建材 40分钟造间房
  • 对于就读EMBA的创业者而言,学校和校友关系网的支持同样很重要。约四分之三的创业者认为,学校和校友网络在自己创办公司时都有帮助或非常有帮助。“校友的支持对创业构想的审查以及为公司找到合适的人脉非常关键”,一位学员说。
    The untitled movie revolves around two intersecting love triangles, obsession and betrayal, set against the music scene. It stars Christian Bale, Cate Blanchett, Michael Fassbender, Ryan Gosling, Rooney Mara and Natalie Portman.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 天津:4月1日起天津不动产登记部分业务再提速, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

梁志天设计集团将于7月5日在香港上市

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

沪指跌0.67%多板块回调 京东方A盘中成交额178亿居两市之首

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 女士们、先生们,欢迎来到2016年没礼貌大奖颁奖典礼。
    11月22日,马拉比在伦敦的一场晚宴上领取了该奖。英国电信集团TalkTalk行政总裁迪多.哈丁(Dido Harding)应邀在晚宴上发表了演讲。
  • Landline
    It is the first time in five years that a single programme broke into the top five, so strong was the hold of the main five global EMBAs.
    美式快餐发源企业、《财富》美国500强公司麦当劳(McDonald's))上周四宣布,它将用200亿美元进行股票回购和派发股息,由此加入了过去18个月企业界的股票回购浪潮。
    “双随机、一公开”监管:随机抽取检查对象,随机选派执法检查人员,及时公布查处结果
    Yet there are similarities between the demagogic elements of the Brexit campaign and the rise of Mr Trump.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 市场形势恶劣 橱柜企业需紧抓三大风口
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 欧盟决定针对中国瓷器征收保护性关税

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

infect+ion→传染;感化
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4. Smart trashcan
喜剧类最佳剧集:《副总统》(Veep, HBO)
去年上海浦东国际机场通报的准点率最低,该机场仅有52.4%的航班准时起飞,平均延误时长为48分钟。
Thirty Seconds of Mars, who are fronted by American actor Jared Leto, took home the Best Alternative award, which also saw Lana Del Rey, Lorde, The XX and Imagine.
Five schools from five different countries are ranked for the first time. Singapore’s Lee Kong Chian School of Business is the highest new entrant coming straight into 36th place. Canada’s Queen’s Smith School of Business registered the best progression, climbing 32 places to 67th.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • More than 110 new and returning series made the shortlist for this roundup before being whittled down to the 20 that appear here. (And that’s without the HBO shows “True Detective,” which is being moved to later in the year, and “Game of Thrones,” “Veep” and “Silicon Valley,” whose April premiere dates haven’t been announced.) From a “Breaking Bad” spinoff, to the return of “Broadchurch,” to the final season of “Justified,” the winter is high season for the serious TV watcher.
  • 科技股暴跌 许家印超越马云、马化腾成为中国首富
  • 源于:muscle(n 肌肉)
    The North has already warned that Park will "pay for his crimes in blood" if copies of the film make it across the border.
  • 整装模式下 卖场成门窗建材品牌娘家
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 单词institute 联想记忆:
    Ranking third on our Top-Grossing list is Steve Carell. Despicable Me 2 was a huge hit this year, bringing in $919 million at the box office. Overall, the franchise has earned $1.4 billion at the box office worldwide and a third movie, Minions, is on the way. Carell also appeared this year in the small indie The Way Way Back and The Incredible Burt Wonderstone. The latter failed to earn back its production budget at the box office but we’re only looking at ticket sales here — the film put another $22.5 million in Carell’s column for 2013.
  • n. 模子,模型,类型,模式,雏型,真菌,软土
    adv. 严格地
  • 当然在接下来的一段时间中里还有很多事情要解决,还会有更多的推测,更多的享受。祝我们所有的读者度过一个安全愉快的假期,迎来一个崭新快乐的篮球之年。
    在令人失望的2014年里,基金投资者们没有太多的动作。总体而言,过去11个月中,主动选股基金仅新增了350亿美元资金,还不到2013年同期新增资金(1620亿美元)的四分之一。2013年是该行业自2007年以来首次实现资金净流入。不过,这并不是说基金行业毫无作为。截止感恩节,交易所交易基金(ETFs)和被动指数型基金吸纳了2060多亿美元净存款,行业领先者先锋集团管理的基金规模在今年夏末突破了3万亿美元大关。投资者们似乎已经决定,与其把宝押在“骑手”身上,不如直接把赌注押在“赛马”身上。
  • 9. Investors brains are so distracted, in denial, they won't get out in time.
    Wish many good wishes for the holidays and the coming year.新的一年,向你献上最诚挚的祝福。
    Asia and Australia account for 11 of the world's top 20 most expensive cities, with eight from Europe and one from South America, the Economist Intelligence Unit's (EIU) worldwide cost of living index found. No North American cities featured in the top 20.
  • 时间:2011-11-04 编辑:Lily
    原指拍film用的film(n 胶卷)-轻而薄且不牢固的
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 文化扶贫“造血”让深山苗乡焕发生机 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

“人才新政”须防跑偏

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

楼市冰火两重天 下一步何去何从

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

房地产多指标背离 分析称地价面临调整风险加大

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

郑州老太不会写字卖房卡了壳 公证处无法公证

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Wang said the journal and authors had an unavoidable responsibility in the latest scandal, with the statement adding that Tumor Biology had retracted papers over similar concerns about the peer review process in 2015.
  • Subdivided flats smaller than 100 square feet (9 square meters) can rent for $385 in the Asian city.
  • 北京限房价项目开闸迎“大考”

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Fone Fun Shop director Mark Strachan says that this machine was developed to help iPhone owners get to their photos or contacts in a locked iPhone with a forgotten passcode. Discovered in Hong Kong, Strachan says that they were at first skeptical that the device would work. But over time, the tool has proven itself over and over again.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • If all this comes to pass, Huberty estimates that Apple's addressable smartphone market in China, which had dwindled to 10%, could triple to nearly 30%.
    1.苹果公司
    尽管曾在8月份做出让人民币贬值的不了了之的尝试(此举震撼了全球市场,很快就被北京方面放弃),但9月份中国的贸易加权汇率同比上升8.5%,这意味着中国出口产品的竞争力有所减弱。
  • Take multiple measures to cut costs.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • They have no reason to tank thanks to the pick swap with the Celtics, but they might be able to pick up some nice consolation draft prizes from contenders looking to make a move.
  • 百城单月推盘创历史新高 住宅库存连增3个月
  • Tiger got to hunt, bird got to fly;

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 专家称楼市泡沫在积累 谨防价格出现过山车
  • Household substance abuse
  • 兰州道路照明拟改造成LED节能灯 项目公开招标中
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

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  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 高扬集团非法集资超6亿遭调查 月星家居或涉其中
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 上半年北京房地产市场豪宅项目呈现井喷之势
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

"The average salary level of employees grew by about 6.3 percent year on year in the first three quarters of last year, while China's annual GDP growth stood at 6.7 percent in 2016, both slowing from a year earlier," Jin added.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

但3D版吉祥猴的形象却未能避开炮击,挑剔的网友纷纷吐槽:“这让我想起红绿灯!”;“水墨画的精髓全然不见”;“耳朵下面的两个球是什么呀,太抢镜了……”;“已被它丑哭。”
The Death Proof star's early success was on the independent film circuit. But then she met Harvey Weinstein in a hotel room and it is there that she alleges he raped her.
4. Jennifer Aniston - $21 million
Institutions may also fail.
'For what is really exceptional, not seen on the market, there are really clients looking for such investments,'
To put this all in a bit more perspective, the current World Cup is averaging more goals than any of the top leagues around the world averaged in 2013/14. TheNetherlands' Eredivisie was the highest scoring of the top European leagues at 3.20 and the Bundesliga was just a shade behind at 3.16. No other top European league averaged more than 2.80 last season. In theAmericas, Major League Soccer is the current pace setter at 2.89 goals per game.
坦白地说,这部电影2017年可能筹备不好,但是以防万一我们还是把它归进来。这是拉斯洛.奈迈施的第二部电影,2016年早些时候他凭借《索尔的儿子》摘得奥斯卡最佳外语片。《日落》是一部关于成长的电影,背景设定在一战前夕的布达佩斯。
But closing the deal on RCEP less than a year after Donald Trump pulled the US out of the TPP would be a big win for Beijing.
It’s the time of the year for list making! This Youku video clip named the nine hottest lines on China’s web this year. The Yangtze Evening Post, an influential newspaper, is the original list compiler.
Although the timing is purely a coincidence, it can’t hurt that Magento’s first product manager, Tim Schulz, just joined Bigcommerce as senior vice president of product management. Most recently a strategic partnership and business development executive for Google for services such as Shopping Express and Wallet, Schulz will be sharply focused on ensuring Bigcommerce offers an integrated experience that better straddles the e-commerce and physical retail worlds. “Consumers just want a seamless experience,” he said.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

楼市新政首周 北上广深一线城市销量同比涨51.4%

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Frances McDormand giving an outstanding central performance as a grieving mother in this darkly comic story.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Purchase products like magazine racks, shelves, and desk organizers that will keep your supplies and resources in order and close-at-hand. We love the File File, $24.95, at CB2.com (pictured above).
  • 135家上市房企上半年营收达7740亿 八成房企利润上涨
  • Although various public incentives exist, many come in the form of tax breaks, low-interest loans or rebates. So a building might have to levy an assessment or raise maintenance to cover initial costs. “You run into the problem of nobody giving you the money upfront,” Mr. Luxemburg said.
  • 国家发改委:上半年我国住房保障持续加强
  • 《飞马》是一部19世纪先驱摄影师埃德沃德.迈布里奇的传记电影,该片是加里.奥德曼近20年来执导的首部电影,也是他人生中的第二部作品。影片聚焦于迈布里奇的妻子芙洛拉以及被他杀害的戏剧评论家哈利.拉金斯之间的绯闻。电影目前尚未确定出演阵容,但奥德曼一直在争取拉尔夫.费因斯以及本尼迪克特.康伯巴奇。奥德曼本人将扮演迈布里奇的检察官。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 证监会:七方面推进资本市场改革发展
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Lecent was with an unknown number of other youth when she was killed by a single bullet inside a home in a public-housing complex near Martin Grove Rd. and Finch Ave W.
  • “这可能影响他们一生。”

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

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