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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

short短+en表动词,“变成”→缩短

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"We will set the exact date and location for our operation in consideration of weather conditions, but it will not be publicised," said Park Sang-Hak, a former defector who has led a series of balloon launches
The survey discusses projections for going forward: "The cost of living is always changing and there are already indications of further changes that are set to take place during the coming year."
它还体现在詹巴蒂斯塔·瓦利(Giambattista Valli)最近的秋冬时装秀上,那场时装秀中充满泡泡袖印花长款衬衫和配套裤子,以及低腰直筒女学生连衣裙;还体现在麦丝玛拉(MaxMara)向乔治·巴里斯(George Barris)1962年为玛丽莲·梦露(Marilyn Monroe)拍摄的照片致敬的系列。

许多管理者提到了一些极其失礼的情况。求职者:
decline
英国剑桥大学Judge商学院(Judge Business School)排名上升速度最快,今年上升19位,名列第29位,这得益于其在高管MBA排名中的出色表现(该学院今年首次参与此项排名)。华威商学院(Warwick Business School)重返榜单前20名(位列第19),该校去年未参加管理硕士排名。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

首套房贷利率三连降:北上广深同框低息榜TOP10

老虎要入眠,鸟儿要降落;
Perhaps in response, at the start of 2017, China's media regulator quietly began including service fees charged by online ticketing companies when reporting box-office figures.
You are the one for me this New Year and for many New Years to come.在此新年和未来的每个新年里,你都是我唯一的爱!

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

The country's film output ranks third in the global market and is expected to exceed 700 by the end of 2016. Sales of film rights to online video sites raked in 4 billion yuan (560 million U.S. dollars) in the same period.
It's important to remember that even when the overall number of jobs goes down, some companies are still adding workers -- it's just that others are cutting even more.
It is the first time that news came up first since the technology company began publishing its yearly review a decade ago.Vera Chan, the company's senior editor and web trend analyst, said the BP oil spill was the most searched topic for term for a variety of reasons.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 面对批评,梅耶尔4月份接受本刊采访时为自己的决定进行了辩解,她说人们“错误地把这项措施视为行业条例。”她表示,自己需要员工在办公室工作,目的是鼓励他们进行合作与创新。目前看来,这个不同寻常的做法可能正在对雅虎产生积极影响——2012年梅耶尔上任以来,这家公司的股价已经上涨了一倍多。
  • 2017年楼市:精准调控下的预期博弈
  • 2. Livers grow by almost half during waking hours. New research suggests that livers have the capacity to grow by almost 50 percent during the day, before shrinking back to their original size at night. They are the only organ we know of that oscillate this way.
  • 全国二手房市场全面回暖 开发商开始布局二三线
  • 北京市住建委突击巡查新开盘的限房价项目
  • Obama's projected victory would set the country's course for the next four years on spending, taxes, healthcare, the role of government and foreign policy challenges such as the rise of China and Iran's nuclear ambitions。
    3. 凯特?阿普顿

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 一线城市:房价涨幅创新高 利润率却持续走低, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

元旦楼市观望为主:看房与真心卖房的人都少

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

盘点2015家居市场十大“新常态”

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Musk said he expects to be producing cars at a 100,000-a-year rate by the end of 2015.
    Rounding out our top five is Sandra Bullock, one of only two women on our list (the other is Jennifer Lawrence in 10th place). Bullock had two big hits this year in two very different genres: Gravity was a tense thriller that will likely earn her another Oscar nomination, while The Heat was a cop comedy that kicked butt at the box office, bringing in $230 million globally.
  • Separate temperature measurements taken from satellites do not show 2014 as a record year, although it is close. Several scientists said the satellite readings reflected temperatures in the atmosphere, not at the earth’s surface, so it was not surprising that they would differ slightly from the ground and ocean-surface measurements that showed record warmth.
    “Tangerine” (Sean Baker)
    Except your Watson, he thinks it's hot.
    莱斯特大学研究人员表示,这副骸骨的DNA同理查三世一名姐妹的后代吻合,而且骸骨的脊柱弯曲,有战争留下的创伤,这都与历史记载吻合。
    10. The 2012 Ig Nobel Prize in Medicine

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 高房价令居民不敢消费 委员建议深化楼市调控
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 杭州楼市投资仍看涨 专家:房企应趁势多销

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

会。美国政府在垂直合并案上已有数十年没赢过。据美国司法部(Department of Justice)自己的审查指导原则,像时代华纳这样的内容所有者与AT&T这样的分销商之间的“垂直合并”,远不如水平合并那么令人担忧。与此同时,Facebook、亚马逊(Amazon)、Netflix和谷歌(Google)这四巨头(合称FANG,取每家名称首字母)如今主宰了数字娱乐版图,这使得政府的如下论点更难以站住脚:两家传统媒体公司的合并,会从根本上改变竞争态势。
But the 3D version of the mascot image failed to dodge bullets, as critical netizens sneered at this version: "Reminds me of green and red lights." "Lost all the flair of that ink painting" "What are those balls under its ears?" "It is so ugly that I just want to cry."
n. 流通,循环,发行量,消息传播
通过比较不同地区指定类别的生活成本,《经济学人智库》指出,亚洲城市在食品上的购买成本最高,其中韩国首尔的食品价格最高。欧洲城市则是在休闲娱乐用品上的成本最高。
The president lashed out at the UN on Sunday for voicing human rights concerns over his war on drugs, saying the Philippines might leave the organisation and form a new body with China and African nations.
据斯派克回忆,一天,拍摄工作结束后,另一位编剧詹妮弗·克里滕登在走廊叫住他,问:"你一定要这样吗?你确定这样不会毁了朱莉娅的前程吗?"考虑到当年朱莉娅凭此剧获得艾美奖,我们不妨说这场舞戏其实让这位女演员在演艺事业上更进了一步。为了怀旧,您不妨抽空再去回顾一下伊莱恩和她著名的"伊莱恩舞步"。
马科斯卡瓦略是一名18岁的巴西球迷,本周早些时候,在巴西利亚国家体育馆闲逛的他表示:“我们甚至压根就没想过买票这事。门票太贵了,我们根本买不起,能做的也就是在家看看球了。我们看着去那些现场观战兴高采烈的人们,但我们自己却去不了,这真令人难过。”

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • crime罪行+al表名词,“人,物,状态”→犯罪分子
  • 调控与人才新政密集出台 5月楼市又现“高烧”
  • 4、Tardiness
    9.亲爱的贵客们,我们希望英国能为你们贡献一个美好的夏天,这个夏天包括了顶尖的国际赛事、先进的设施、有趣的娱乐、以及汇集了几个世纪的艺术建筑精华的文化遗产。如果你最终只收获了四张卓著国际中心的摔跤比赛门票,好吧,祝你下次好运。
  • 东莞厚街启动新项目 打造全球最大家居创意产业园
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • The EMBA ranking rates the best 100 programmes worldwide for working senior executives. The ranking is based on a survey of business schools as well as their students who graduated in 2012. The data measure how successful alumni have been in their career in terms of salary, seniority and achievements since graduating.
    Will the BoJ tighten monetary policy
  • 另一名学员表示:这个项目让我的事业获得了巨大飞越,为我在毕业后马上就担任一个战略最高层管理职位做好了准备。
    其中一个球迷站在女孩对面的球迷俯下身来想和女孩索吻,此时女孩正与她的朋友用法语交谈时,男子假装很囧地和旁边一个朋友来了一个拥抱。
  • 课程安排:每隔一个周末在芝加哥上课,共计大约18门课程,包括4门选修课。学员在芝加哥住校学习3周,在香港和伦敦分别学习1周。
    Obama enters his second four-year term faced with a difficult task of tackling $1 trillion annual deficits, reducing a $16 trillion national debt, overhauling expensive social programs and dealing with a gridlocked U.S. Congress that looked likely to maintain the same partisan makeup。
  • The Peoria, Ill.-based maker of heavy equipment authorized $10 billion in stock repurchases in January and expected to buy back $1.7 billion of its shares in the first quarter this year to complete its previous $7.5 billion repurchase initiative. The ongoing buybacks are "a result of our record cash flow," said CEO Doug Oberhelman.
    "Well, I am going to have a Cabinet that looks like America," the former secretary of state replied. "And 50 percent of America is women, right?"
    彭博(Bloomberg)的调查分析此前预计1月份中国CPI应上升1.9%。
  • Some hits have gone so far over the top they should be winded, yet instead keep on puffing gusts of hot air, including “Downton Abbey,” “Scandal” and “Revenge.” A new addition on ABC, “How to Get Away With Murder” was a fun substitute, a lurid nighttime soap opera about lawbreaking defense lawyers — “Law & Disorder.”
    Sonneborn, who lives in Bristol, Vermont, with his parents and younger sister, Julia, 11, is seeking the Democratic nomination.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 大佬抢搭楼市新政头班车 孙宏斌暗示全面涨价 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

“以房养老”陷入困局 全国仅有117户选择住房反向抵押养老保险

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

房地产上市公司回购增多

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

包头:2批次木门木地板甲醛超标 4批次灯具有漏电着火风险

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

儿童家具品牌星星美墅被判侵权 多款侵权产品已下架

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • “有个女员工说自己去买靴子,但再也没露过面。”
  • 3. Mathematician
  • 北京修订新增产业禁止和限制目录 将北京城市副中心单列管理

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 赢家:小牛
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 求职者犯的错,他们:
    迷你剧集/电影类最佳男配角:斯特林?K?布朗(Sterling K Brown),《美国罪案故事:公诉辛普森》(The People v. O. J. Simpson: American Crime Story)
    The survey discusses projections for going forward: "The cost of living is always changing and there are already indications of further changes that are set to take place during the coming year."
  • 《中国日报》(China Daily)援引中国旅游研究院(China Tourism Academy)和北京市旅游发展委员会(Beijing Commission of Tourism Development)的一篇报告称,污染状况加剧以及人民币升值,使得北京去年1月至11月间的外国游客数量从2012年同期的501万人下降至420万人。此前一份基于对国内旅行社的调查的报告显示,去年前三个季度赴北京旅游的游客数量较上年同期下降约50%。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • The swap is due largely to the major security breach at software company Adobe in October which affected tens of millions of users.
  • 美媒称离婚潮助推香港房价不断攀升
  • 《纽约时报》记者詹姆斯?格尔曼追踪报道了一群科学家,他们试图找到将狼与狗区分开来的基因。为了进行科学研究,饲养小狼崽的人必须每周7天、每天24小时和它们在一起,使它们能够适应社会化,以便进行科学研究。尽管这些幼崽看起来很可爱,它们最终还是会成长为掠食性的狼,而不是人类的忠实伙伴。研究人员希望他们的工作将有助于揭示,究竟是什么因素在历史上让一部分狼演化成人类熟悉的狗。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 佛山照明新一届董事长选出 切割欧司朗时代
  • Household substance abuse
  • 年底进入购房旺季 东莞二手住宅上月成交止跌
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

前8月全国房地产开发投资同比名义增长5.4%

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 个税改革中等收入群体减税幅度大
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 珠三角制造业倒闭调查:家具陶瓷等行业成重灾区
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

“不能再采取某些国家先行动,其他国家随后行动的策略,因为时间不多了,”奥斯陆国际气候与环境研究中心(Center for International Climate and Environmental Research)的科学家格伦·P·彼得斯(Glen P. Peters)说。他也参与了这些新数据的编制。“现在需要大家齐心协力。”

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

It is not all bad news for buyers: Prices will still head north next year, but the pace will likely slow from a sprint to a saunter. “Prices can’t just keep going up, up, up on this steep climb,” said Pamela Liebman, the chief executive officer of Corcoran. “Buyers get a little fatigued.”
Fund shareholders weren’t wasting any time reacting to this year of disappointment. Collectively, they’ve added just $35 billion to active stock-picking funds in the last 11 months, less than a quarter of the $162 billion they added in 2013, which was the first year of positive flows for the industry since 2007. This is not to say that they were sitting still. ETFs and passive index funds took in over $206 billion in net deposits through Thanksgiving, and Vanguard surpassed the $3 trillion mark sometime in late summer. Investors seem to have decided that they’d rather bet on the horses than the jockeys, after all.
embrace
万事达金融服务公司公布的2016年度报告显示,据预测,曼谷今年将接待2147万国际游客。
在周二发布的一份研究报告中,行业组织国际金融协会(Institute of International Finance)经济学家罗宾?克普克(Robin Koepke)表示,投资者、新兴市场政策制定者以及美联储自身都忽视了美国利率在引发新兴国家汇率、银行及债务危机方面的作用。
教育行业基本上还未受到在线服务交付的影响——但可能会在2018年经历戏剧性的变化。
新近成立的Eleven James正在男表领域引入合作消费的概念。该公司的会员项目能令你获得亲近一系列精挑细选的高端腕表的机会,这一曾经只和私人飞机、豪华汽车及度假屋联系在一起的会员模式正在Eleven James的手中发扬光大。除腕表外,会员还能注册专享忠诚度项目,其中包括礼宾服务、合伙人利益专享及诸如腕表主题活动等独一无二的体验。听起来有点像男士腕表和飞机租赁公司Net Jets体验的大碰撞?公司创始人兰迪?布兰多夫(Randy Brandoff)在奢侈品营销领域拥有深厚经验,曾经在Net Jets担任高级副总裁和首席营销官、在Marquis Jets担任过执行副总裁和首席营销官。他的专长,加上年复一年增长势头良好的腕表行业,以及一种在其他市场证明行之有效的商业模式——看起来Elven James正是在恰当的时间叩开了市场的大门。
但是,海外机构投资者表示,随着中国经济增长放慢,香港房地产市场已经过热,正在进入调整阶段。
Online peer-to-peer broker Ezubao previously cheated about 900,000 investors out of more than 50 billion RMB through a giant Ponzi scheme, the Xinhua News Agency reported in February.
大师级别的老式、线性的动作电影拍摄,充满污秽、朋克、反乌托邦的澳大利亚式幽默。也是最近除玛格丽特·阿斯特伍德(Margaret Atwood)的小说之外,最好的生态-女权-社会主义作品。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

深圳成交均价同比翻倍 有楼盘单价直涨千元

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Payouts also varied substantially between industries and cities. The average bonus at financial institutions was over Rmb17,200, while those in the education sector got less than half of that on average at less than Rmb7,500.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 8. Victoria and Abdul
  • 2013年上半年业绩快报 超六成建材公司业绩报喜
  • 别提什么至少提前两周通知公司,精心安排一次离职面谈,在卷铺盖走人前费尽心机跟人搞好关系了。有些人在离职时太过匆忙,根本顾不上这些套路。
  • 供应 建立多级体系
  • 在纽约举办了多次其标志性的时装秀之后,内衣品牌维多利亚的秘密又来到伦敦、巴黎、戛纳和洛杉矶举办维密秀,而在2017年,该全球女士内衣行业巨头来到了上海。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 【大行报告】广发:建材行业2017上半年“价”强“量”弱
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Recent initiatives to support two-way tourism between the two countries include the trial of the 10-year visitor visa; the open aviation market services arrangement which removes all capacity restrictions for airlines on both sides; and a new Beijing to Sydney service by Qantas Airways which was launched in January.
  • 编者案:伦敦奥运会开幕在即,让我们来看看本届奥运会都有哪些比赛项目吧,同时在看看的同时也不要忘了学学比赛项目的词汇,一举两得何乐而不为呢?

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

林氏木业:互联网大潮来袭 家具行业亟需集群

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