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2022年全球水性涂料市场预计将达1461.1亿美元

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 2018年经济增速排名南快北慢 快在哪里?慢在何处? (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

经济低迷下 LED企业进攻细分市场是否可行?

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

对于在泥潭里挣扎的球队,有一样建队过程中关键的东西一直诱惑着他们,那就是建队计划。
1=不全是
普京在国际记者年度新闻发布会上表示,他准备和任何一位当选的美国总统合作。
在苹果(Apple)的蒂姆库克(Tim Cook)支持AR后,该技术可能是更大的机遇。苹果最新操作系统及新款手机iPhone X纳入了AR技术。
由施普林格自然集团出版的杂志《肿瘤生物学》上周宣布,调查显示,这107篇论文的同行评审过程存在问题,因此已被撤稿。
“我只是想保持专业的一面。我不想让别人认为我是脑残粉。我是表演嘉宾之一,不仅仅是伴舞者,我是一名舞者演员。”
如果你处于失业状态:

在家里创造一个属于自己的学习空间。如果身边家人都在身边,你就要确保大家都明白你是在里面学习,除非房子着火,他们是不会打扰到你的。
这个习惯会严重影响你的工作。如果你认为在最后时刻可以发挥最好,不断地推迟任务直至最后一天(一个小时),你可能没有认识到你的这种习惯给同事们带来的影响。如果最后一刻再来赶工,要求别人迅速完成任务,很可能会惹恼你的同事,在任务失败或者未按时完成时候,你就是第一个被责备的人。
Yet if “Mad Men” showed us anything (besides how cool a skinny suit could look, and that wide ties really were not a good men’s wear moment), it is that the decade chronicled was a complicated, often unhappy, occasionally destructive time.
On April 24, Zhou took the pesticide to the Yimin Technician Training School in Rongchang, Chongqing and hid the toxic substance under a desk.
adj. 非常坚硬的,强硬的,固执的 n. 坚硬无比之物

Footnotes

  • 家居行业发展趋势:电商与店商的接合
  • The dollar value of exports from emerging market countries will rise next year for the first time since 2014, helped by higher commodity prices and modestly stronger demand, it is predicted.

In 2015, the number of migrant residents living in Shanghai dropped for the first time in the past 15 years, Shanghai Television reported Monday.
但最近,回购势头开始减弱。跟踪回购比例最大的100家公司的标准普尔500回购指数最近创下了自2012年年中以来的首次下跌。随着股价连创新高,股票回购所产生的推动作用消失,公司投资较长期项目或使用多余现金进行收购变得更有价值。
China’s retail sales softened as industrial production and investment held more or less steady in spite of a weaker showing from exports last month.
8. You left your résumé in the freaking printer!
The Hidrate Spark 2 tracks your water intake by syncing with a mobile app and recording how many ounces of water you drink a day, which can also be tracked by remembering how many times you refilled your bottle labeled with the number of ounces on the side.
惊险、欢快与不安交替进行,乔纳森·格雷泽导演的非凡之处在于让色情电影难得的实现了幻想与现实的融合。

1月 发展“长期租赁”市场

References

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