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财政部发布深化增值税改革有关政策的公告

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 盘点2013——家居建材业留下的那些烙印 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

江西:“数字不动产登记”明年上半年全面落地

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

亚太地区票房增长了13%,是推动国际票房增长的主力,而中国贡献了整个亚太地区近半票房。
该片根据同名童话故事拍摄而成,主要讲述了主人公毛各利的丛林奇遇,他试图在探险中发现自己。他在丛林中遇到很多生物(由众多演员扮演),正是这些生物使他的旅程变得异常艰辛。
影片直接来自真实的Bling Ring帮,2008年,他们10个月的赃物飚升了300万美元。电影列出的所有名人都是这个团伙真实的受害者。团伙成员声称,是社会对这些名人私生活的痴迷鼓励了他们。无论动机如何,《炫富帮》都很好地提醒了人们,要时不时与媒体拉开距离。
Belize's proximity to Mexico and the Caribbean ensures the street-food scene, providing an abundance of budget meal options.
It's a travel pillow that bends to support your head in any position.
阅读成功的商业案例。吸收史蒂夫o乔布斯等成功创业者以及《创智赢家》(Shark Tank)提供的知识财富。一份成功的商业计划书不需要长篇累牍。10页纸的商业计划书既便于理解,又足以包含你要开始实施的所有内容。
它是一种受谅解和制度制约的权力争斗。

把职工安置好还是我们推进供给侧结构性改革,推动化解和淘汰过剩产能中最关键的问题。
室内环境:这栋灰泥粉饰的两层楼当代住宅建于2005年。屋内是通风的开敞式空间设计;白色墙壁与红色瓷砖地面形成了对比。屋内有几扇推拉门正对着威尔明顿河(Wilmington River)边的栎树林和湿地。
Annual shipments by Chinese smartphone manufacturers Huawei, OPPO and vivo rocketed all three companies into the world's top 5 smartphone manufacturers last year, according to the latest data released by third-party market intelligence firm IDC.
SAVANNAH, GA.
Song “Fire In The Winter”(Kenji Wu and Dream Chorus)

Footnotes

  • 武汉“抢才”半年吸引14万大学毕业生落户
  • 单词associate 联想记忆:

release
Social customer service kills the dreaded phone tree
In the ranking of finance programmes for students already working in the industry, London Business School regains the top place it occupied between 2011 and 2015, while Judge Business School at Cambridge university drops back into second place.
Lighting is key when it comes to getting work done. Instead of investing in your typical, boring college dorm room desk lamp, pick something with a prettier design. Check out vintage stores for one-of-a-kind table lamps or keep it cheap with the Tiffany Table Lamp, $99.99, at Target.com.
《南华早报》援引当地公安局李剑敏告诉新华社记者的消息:“整个加工车间里又腥又臭,人进去待一两分钟就受不了。”
他说,薪酬是个问题(2010年记者的年薪中值为3.6万美元)。他不知道自己能否靠做记者的薪水供养家庭并送孩子上大学。而且还有一点没错,记者的压力和工作时间可能会令人感到精疲力竭。但他说,我不确定自己换个工作是否会开心,也想不出任何一个工作会像做记者这样让我觉得兴奋或有成就感。

两栋楼凭空现400多公司 数百房产信息疑被盗用

References

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