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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

上海社会科学院的专家周海旺告诉环球时报:“上海自2014以来就采取了一系列强硬措施,包括改造城中村和规范群租来控制人口增长。”

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But a friend saw a TV report about it and contacted the sorting office. Mr Siddeeq, 74, says he is still eager to read it, despite now being divorced。
Julia Hartz
Sonneborn says he's been dismayed not only by what he sees as Trump's troubling decisions and juvenile moments but also by the president's response after a counterprotester was killed during the August white nationalist rally in Charlottesville, Virginia — which is what cemented Sonneborn's decision to seek office.

上榜的商学院包括来自26个国家的商学院,其中美国有35家,英国有10家,中国有9家。中国人民大学商学院(Renmin University of China School of Business)的排名上升最快,从第43名升至第18名。法国的格勒诺布尔商学院(Grenoble Business School)排名第70名,土耳其的萨班哲大学管理商学院(Sabanci University School of Management)排名第99名,巴西的Coppead排名第100名。
12月工业利润下滑突显出中国工业面临的产能过剩和价格下跌的困扰,这加大了中国政府放松货币政策并扩大基础设施支出,以缓和经济放缓影响的压力。
1.水上类比赛项目

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

中央经济工作会议:明年实施积极财政政策和稳健货币政策

The block chain has such rich potential that there is an initiative underway to create additional “side chains,” though there is controversy around that idea. “We don’t really want to mess with the main block chain right now,” says Adam Ludwin, CEO of Chain, a block chain API that makes it easier to create bitcoin applications. “It works, we don’t want to break it.”
Those who graduated from Peking University and Beijing Foreign Studies University took second and third place, earning 9,042 yuan and 9,020 yuan a month, respectively.
adj. 犯罪的,刑事的,违法的

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

我经常觉得不开心
During Monday night’s debate Mr Rutte reiterated that he would not form a coalition government with Mr Wilders’ party, even ruling out forming a government that relied on support from the anti-immigration party. “I’m not going to work with such a party again,” said Mr Rutte, whose first minority government was propped up by PVV after the 2010 elections.
Just as shocking was the 59 percent rise in whooping cough, a disease that was all but wiped out more than half a century ago by comprehensive immunisation programs.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 中国工业和信息化部副部长毛伟明在一次新闻发布会上说:“在我国经济发展进入新常态的形势下,工业面临着下行压力加大、结构不尽合理、创新能力较弱。”
  • 国务院常务会议落实降低社会保险费率部署 降低失业和工伤保险费率政策再延长一年
  • 单词adolescent 联想记忆:
  • 党报:三四线城市房产回暖 农民工购房有心无力
  • 港媒称内地二线城市楼市将复苏 杭州等地房价或上涨
  • 通过药物注射传播艾滋病病毒的情况已得到有效控制。2017年,经注射吸毒感染者的人数相比2012年下降44.5%。
    当芬兰程序员Jerry Jalava 2008年遇到车祸,他面临双重悲剧。首先,他失去了他的手指,对于靠打字生存的人来说是个大问题。其次,他必须跟一个幽默感过剩的医疗小组打交道。了解了他的遭遇后,一位外科医生竟然提议Jalava应该出门去买个“USB手指驱动器”。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 天猫动了谁的奶酪? 家居业线上线下联动细节需落实, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

房屋中介“扣下”租金 租客房东维权无门

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

全国楼市总体稳定 房地产调控基调不变

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • White anxiety has fueled this year’s political tumult in the West: Britain’s surprising vote to exit the European Union, Donald J. Trump’s unexpected capture of the Republican presidential nomination in the United States, the rise of right-wing nationalism in Norway, Hungary, Austria and Greece.
    It’s wall-to-wall pure pop heaven, crackling with originality and dark humor, teeming with action sequences so perfectly timed and executed you almost want to run out of the theater on the spot so you can call a friend and rave about it — but you wouldn’t dare leave your seat because you wouldn’t want to miss a frame of this brilliant, pulse-quickening gem.
  • 从周日起,各地的观众都在叹息该剧剧终,至少从Twitter名人的帖子来看是这样的。
    谈到乌克兰,普京再次否认俄罗斯军队在东乌克兰境内活动。那里的亲俄罗斯分离主义运动正在与乌克兰政府军作战。但是他说,莫斯科从未否认有人在那里开展属于“军事领域”的行动。他还说,俄罗斯没有制裁乌克兰的计划,但不会让乌克兰享受优惠贸易待遇。
    channel
    Confidence and a good elevator speech can take any pitch to the next level. The first marketing any company experiences comes from its founder. Spend time learning how to share your vision without coming across as “salesy.” Don’t be afraid to ask for the sale, but remember: the client is always the focus.
    The ranking measures the quality and breadth of the schools’ postgraduate programmes. Schools must take part in all four rankings to be eligible for a full score. LBS rose from third last year by participating in all four rankings for the first time.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 亿元索赔来袭 佛山照明麻烦不断
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 2月北京住宅租赁成交量环比减少 租金稳定

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Best Companies rank: 1
Scott Brooks gets leeway as he learns his roster, and injuries continue to play too big a role. But I just can't fathom why this team is so much worse than the playoff team from a couple years back. The other piece is that it's unlikely the Wizards can conceivably be bad enough to get a top-five pick.
n. 商标
There is a salary gap of nearly 22 per cent between male and female graduates three years after they finished their courses, $90,000 compared to $73,000. That gap had been 17 per cent whenstudents first graduated, so thisdifference has widened over time(see chart).
Finance and real estate made up the backbone of home-grown brands, with 38 and 23 companies coming into the list respectively, and accounting for 30 percent of the brands on the list.
这名43岁的女子被判处为期12个月的行为考察,并且不得再次拥有宠物。
n. 联合,结合,交往,协会,社团,联想

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • This compared to a decade ago when there were six Asian cities, 10 European cities and four US cities in the top 20 of the list that calculates living costs in 131 cities in 93 countries and is used by companies for costings when relocating staff.
  • 成都软装市场 如何扛起多元化规模化发展的“大旗”
  • China (mainland and Hong Kong) adds 25 to the list this year, more than any other country, for a total of 207. Three countries debut on the list this year: Mauritius, Slovakia, and Togo.
    Be prepared to save his life on numerous occasions.
  • 电商助力家居用品行业蓬勃发展 年增速300%-500%
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Meanwhile, 78 percent of the civil service jobs offered this year are posts at county or district levels, as the central government seeks to steer more college graduates to jobs at city and county levels, he said.
    "We hope the mother will come to us and verify the facts. If it's true that the user is a 13-year-old who spent the money without consent, we can negotiate a refund," the Tencent employee said.
  • Type D personalities usually have a low self-esteem and a great fear of disapproval and this is the primary reason that prevents them from opening up to others.
    Age: 39
  • 想要改善自己的生活,而不只是学业,最好的方法之一就是冥想。每天花上十五分钟,静下心来,集中注意力并充满自信。
    苹果越来越需要有人去抵挡和应对攻击者以及监管者(苹果在欧洲遭到税务调查),而库克对人、策略和执行——而不是产品——的重视终于开始看起来像个优势。
  • But industry watchers say that view misses an area where China goes toe-to-toe with Western rivals in innovation: extra features that make the Chinese version more interactive and more interesting to use.
    不会。当然,这种情况可能发生,但是只要运气不是太差,梅眼下至少可以确保英国经济不会在2019年因掉落“无协议”悬崖而急剧下滑。2017年12月,“共识预测”(Consensus Forecasts)预测2018年英国将增长1.5%。该机构对日本和意大利的预测值更低,为1.3%。因此英国明年成为G7中经济增长最慢国家的几率应该在四分之一左右。
    该排名的编辑菲尔·巴蒂称:“在近几年取得重大进展之后,中国在全球排名榜上的持续增长似乎已经停滞。这些新数据显示,新兴力量要打入传统的全球名校阶层是多么困难。”
  • 2010年的头号热门搜索问题是“如何打领带”,其次是“如何减肥”、“如何接吻”以及“如何写简历”。
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  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 海南乡村民宿逢建必报 严禁变相发展房地产 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

多名房东疑被“套路贷”遭起诉 易贷网10亿“租金贴现”局

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

海南文昌今年计划改造危房452户 现已全面开工

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

一套二手房 平均看15次成交

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

嘉宜美线下体验店“克隆宜家” 销售产品一模一样

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Banks, asset managers and insurance companies have flocked from mainland China to acquire prime Hong Kong office buildings, prompting the territory’s government to announce it will release more land for commercial redevelopment in the oversubscribed heart of the city.
  • If the timing of your job search allows, Foss recommends beefing up your LinkedIn profile gradually (and thus inconspicuously). Or better yet, work on it when you're not job searching。
  • 农业农村部:全国“大棚房”问题底数已初步摸清

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • In terms of the volume of exports from emerging markets, Mr Baweja would not rule out growth of around 4-5 per cent. But while this would represent a modest improvement on recent years, growth at this rate would still be “in the bottom quartile over the long-term distribution, even maybe the second decile”, given that median growth has been about 7 per cent a year over the past 25 years.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • announced
    Qualcomm
    扎实推进“一带一路”建设。
  • Alice Schwarzer

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 最后,今年只有两所学校首次登上开放课程排行榜。上海交通大学安泰经济与管理学院(Antai College of Economics and Management)直接排到第32名,而亚利桑那大学(University of Arizona)艾勒管理学院(Eller College of Management)在75所院校中排名第68位。
  • 调控政策成楼市销量拐点 去库存出现新压力
  • 过去一年中,亚利桑那州最大的赢家是建筑和休闲/酒店行业,这两个行业共增加了超过1万个就业机会。其他快速增长的行业包括商业服务、金融活动、教育和医疗服务。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 机构报告称“摇号抢房”受供应紧张影响 预测下半年供需将缓和
  • Household substance abuse
  • 乡村振兴对城市居民是重要利好
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

区域分化加剧 一线城市房价五年来上涨46%

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 巢湖水泥行业“减排战” 推两大措施
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 缴个税或可享受 房贷利息扣除 利好年轻购房者
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

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Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

但是,只要快速扫一眼日益变化的天际线,我们就能发现一个令人沮丧的现实:那些光鲜亮丽的新大厦,未能提供大部分纽约人买得起的房型。“我们正在修建的房屋,跟我们需要修建的房屋之间存在着脱节,”房地产估值公司米勒·塞缪尔(Miller Samuel)的总裁乔纳森·J·米勒表示,“2015年,这一现象会更加明显。”
Cnzz.com的报告说,目前中国3.38亿网民中有将近三分之二都是网络游戏玩家。报告说,中国网络游戏行业目前占据了互联网经济总规模的半数以上,在未来还将以每年20%的速度增长。
n. 没精打采的样子,耷拉,笨人 v. 没精打采地站,坐
中国旅游研究院国际旅游研究所(Institute of International Tourism)副所长蒋依依认为,外国游客数量下降的部分原因在于人民币的升值。
I hope you have a most happy and prosperous New Year.
在假日旅行最佳航空公司的排行榜上,夏威夷航空公司(Hawaiian Airlines)遥遥领先,紧随其后的是另一家主要经营太平洋海岸业务的阿拉斯加航空公司(Hawaiian Airlines)。相反,根据FlightAware的数据显示,假日旅行期间最差的航空公司是总部位于纽约的捷蓝航空公司(JetBlue Airways),经营区域航线的快捷航空(ExpressJet)排名倒数第二。
哈维·韦恩斯坦被指控此后将麦高恩列入了黑名单,同时雇佣莫萨德机构跟踪麦高恩,窃取她的纪念手稿。
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Vegetable price growth more than doubled to 13 per cent year on year, helping push food inflation to 3 per cent, up from 2.7 per cent in September.
To put this all in a bit more perspective, the current World Cup is averaging more goals than any of the top leagues around the world averaged in 2013/14. TheNetherlands' Eredivisie was the highest scoring of the top European leagues at 3.20 and the Bundesliga was just a shade behind at 3.16. No other top European league averaged more than 2.80 last season. In theAmericas, Major League Soccer is the current pace setter at 2.89 goals per game.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

中国建材负债300% 高杠杆模式成双刃剑

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • THE BRIDGE (Hulu, Friday) The second season of this Danish-Swedish crime drama (the source for FX’s recently canceled series of the same name) once again involves the Oresund Bridge connecting the two countries.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 马丁沃尔夫(Martin Wolf)
  • 3月多数城市新房价环比上涨 或招致更严厉调控
  • 他有能力向球迷们展示接下来的计划吗?——不管是什么计划。在又一个无论场内场外都丑陋的赛季后,尼克斯球迷当然有理由知道上述两个问题的答案。
  • 房贷猛增近3万亿 热点城市房价预期依然居高不下
  • 日前,美国一位母亲为她14岁的、因在视频游戏中作弊而面临指控的儿子,写信进行辩护。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 房地产行业集中度再提升 多元化业务形态逐步确立
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Blake Griffin
  • No.4: The 1st Useful Mechanical Pet

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

北京一季度新开工保障性住房2.3万套 民间投资活力显现

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