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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

As the unstoppable Nazi forces roll across Western Europe and the threat of invasion is imminent, and with an unprepared public, a skeptical King, and his own party plotting against him, Churchill must withstand his darkest hour, rally a nation, and attempt to change the course of world history.

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May everything beautiful and best be condensed into this card. I sincerely wish you happiness, cheerfulness and success.
虽然香港、悉尼和温哥华地处全球的不同角落,但是它们有着同一个特征。
Have some respect for those who are promoting your work and hosting you to remove the gum before the interview begins.

It is already illegal for employers to discriminate on the basis of race, color, sex, nationality, religion, age, or disability. But a majority of states still don't provide protection to LGBT individuals in the workplace. Apple (AAPL, Fortune 500) CEO Tim Cook wants to put an end to this discrepancy. In a November Wall Street Journal op-ed entitled "Workplace Equality Is Good for Business," Cook urged the passing of a federal law to protect workers from discrimination based on sexual orientation.
摩根士丹利的分析师乔纳斯认为,Model X的销量将会更加可观,但不是由于它的燃油经济性,而是它升级后的信息娱乐系统,以及独特的“鹰翼”式后车门。他还表示,如果Model X没有赢得所有的年度车型大奖,他会非常失望。他并不是唯一一个这样想的人。埃隆o穆斯克和其他很多祈祷特斯拉继续保持当前势头的人当然也会这样想。(财富中文网)
['k?mpleks]

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

地王频现拉响楼市警报 限购等政策或将多地上演

CONTACT: Kathy Michalove, Seaboard Properties, (860) 535-8364; seaboardpropertiesre.com
1936年诺贝尔和平奖奖牌在美国巴尔的摩的拍卖会上拍出116万美元高价,这枚奖牌是在南美的一家当铺里被发现的。
Academics appear to be more interested in the cryptocurrency than ever before. There were 190 white papers published on bitcoin in 2014, up from 55 in 2013. Authors—amateur or otherwise—have also flocked to bitcoin: Amazon lists 437 books about or involving the term “bitcoin” published in 2014, compared to 143 in 2013. (That is based on a subject search, and thus includes less hard-hitting titles like Bitcoin Bimbo 3: Undercover Cop Science Fiction Erotica.) And sports fans this year may not have been able to ignore the inaugural Bitcoin St. Petersburg Bowl, a college football playoff game between North Carolina State and the University of Central Florida. ESPN quickly convertedBitPay’s $500,000 rights fee for the game into U.S. dollars.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

小说作者安东尼·赫洛维兹(Anthony Horowitz)透露,新书《Trigger Mortis》为现代读者作了改动,包含反对吸烟的信息,而且首次有一位“直言不讳”的同性恋朋友出场。
There are always one or two coworkers in the office that most people can't stand. But if you don't like most of your coworkers, chances are your days aren't very enjoyable because you have to work with them day in and day out. If you can't stand most of your coworkers, it's time to think about finding a company whose employees you mesh with better.
译者:清远

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 这位曾演唱过《Royals》(《皇室贵族》)的少年天才在20岁的时候就在联合制作人杰克·安东诺夫的帮助下更上一层楼,把对电子音乐的无限展望与人类的尺度结合在一起,亲手打造了自己的第二张专辑。
  • 中山半导体照明产业制定新标准 LED产业将告别低价模仿
  • Dachis says: The end of year iPhone 5 and iPad Mini releases overcame early controversies in overseas manufacturing and any lingering effects from the death of Steve Jobs to make Apple the biggest mover of the year.
  • 贷款租房,叫好还要叫座
  • 电商与家装渠道崛起,木门企业“马太效应”凸显
  • “温家宝总理强调指出,中国有效应对了全球金融危机的严重影响,经济保持稳定快速增长。因此中国成为全球第二大经济体,在五年内GDP几乎翻番。”Luis Schmidt Montes, Chilean ambassador
    我们错了——最终睾丸还是与免疫系统有关联的。研究人员发现了“一扇非常小的门”使睾丸可以向免疫系统发送单向信号,这解释了为什么一些男性会被不孕症所困扰,也解释了某些癌症疫苗一直失败的原因。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 家居建材板块渐趋活跃 契合当前通胀主线, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

浙江房地产市场首次“双随机”抽查

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

掘金全屋定制市场 众家具品牌需过关斩将

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 8.Kate Upton
    我们从中精选了110部新剧和回归剧,又进一步缩减到下面的20部剧(内中没有包括HBO台的《真探》[True Detective],因为它被移到今年晚些时候,亦不包括《权力的游戏》[Game of Thrones]、《副总统》[Veep]和《硅谷》[Silicon Valley],其中《硅谷》将在四月播出第一集,具体日期未宣布)。从《绝命毒师》(Breaking Bad)的衍生剧到《小镇疑云》(Broadchurch)的回归,再到《火线警探》的最终季,冬天真是电视剧迷的好时光。
  • China's online game revenue in 2008 was CNY20.8 billion, accounting for about 27% global share, ahead of South Korea at 21% and slightly behind the U.S. at 29%, according to an earlier report by Shanghai-based market research firm iResearch. The firm also predicted that China is likely to surpass the U.S. to become the world's largest by the end of 2009.
    In an industry enthralled to rehashed stories that strike a familiar chord with audiences, give Pixar credit for often trying something new and pushing their viewers into uncharted territories. Coco, directed by Toy Story 3’s Lee Unkrich, has a visual look based around Mexico’s Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead). It’s about a young boy named Miguel who idolises legendary guitar player Ernesto de la Cruz and wants to learn how to play as well as he could. So he goes on a transformative odyssey of self-discovery into the realm of the dead to find his long-deceased idol and learn some lessons about the nature of creativity and originality. Whether it can reach the heights of Pixar’s 2015 masterpiece Inside Out remains to be seen, but Coco should surely be a feast for the eyes. Released November 15 in France, November 22 in the US, Croatia and the Philippines, and November 30 in Israel. (Credit: Disney-Pixar)
    这位开国之父指出,选举人团既会防范外国势力想在我们议会中获得不当影响力之心,又会确保总统之位永远不会落到并非具备必要素质的杰出者那种人手里。
    源于:sloth(n (对工作)懒惰)slou=slow,ch吃:吃得慢-无精打采的样子
    No.35 娜塔丽·波特曼娜塔丽·波特曼(Natalie Portman ,1981年6月9日-),出生在以色列,美国好莱坞著名女演员之一。她曾获得过金球奖,并获得奥斯卡奖提名。美国哈佛

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 年轻人的“住房梦”:买房似乎愈来愈遥远了
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 家装热潮提前到 卖场促销抢蛋糕

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Almost all of China’s gold goes to meet domestic demand, since companies are not allowed to export gold.
最佳电影奖和最佳导演奖。让人意外的是,诺兰从未获得过奥斯卡奖最佳导演提名。
Besides, Japan and the United States are still innovation hot spots and chemical, semiconductor and electronic components and autos are the top innovative industries, according to the report.
Kendall Jenner has knocked Gisele off the top spot as the world's highest paid model for the first time in 15 years.
全国31个省(区、市)1767所高校43万多名学生接受了调查。89.2%的受访者曾考虑过创业,18.2%的受访者称有强烈的创业意向。
1.Mitsubishi. Brand love: -12% / Rank: 360
If Lloyd Grossman were to go through the keyholes of Oscar winners’ houses, he would find their golden statues in various spots: from prime real estate such as the mantelpiece to the depths of cupboards collecting dust.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 今年2月的时候,玛蒂与希雅和克里斯汀?韦格(Kristen Wiig)一起担任2015格莱美音乐颁奖典礼(Grammy Awards)的表演嘉宾。当时金?卡戴珊(Kim Kardashian)和坎耶?韦斯特(Kanye West)坐在前排观看了这个表演。
  • 为何儿童家具不合格检出率居高不下
  • IT/communications/electronics/Internet offer new graduates the highest pay at 4,867 yuan a month on average, but that's down 826 yuan from last year's level. Finance and transport/logistics/warehousing come second, offering average monthly salaries of 4,692 and 4,457 yuan respectively.
    STEP 1: GET THE LOOK
  • 硼墨烯或成新纳米材料
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • A robust LinkedIn presence is crucial to any job search. You know that. Your manager knows that. And your manager probably knows that you know that – so she'll be concerned when you go from having a bare-bones profile on Monday to one jacked with additional work history, new connections, status updates and recommendations by Friday. "Don't go from zero to 500 overnight, because that can be quite obvious," Foss cautions。
    10.《萤火虫》灵感来自葛底斯堡战役
  • 9.消防员
    If you don't, you need to trade Boogie Cousins and all those veterans you signed over the past two offseasons.
  • 通用汽车现在已经对挥泪大促销上瘾,新首席执行长惠塔克里(Ed Whitacre)对此心知肚明。他将在2010年取消一些购买刺激措施,以放弃全美20%市场占有率目标的方式来谋求重获盈利能力。这番求索注定是前路艰难。
    乔布斯在苹果博览会上展示iPod mini ,2004年1月6日,旧金山
  • Weaker demand from emerging markets made 2015 the worst year for world trade since the aftermath of the global financial crisis, highlighting rising fears about the health of the global economy.
    David Pilling
    elite
  • Effective email marketing involves more than occasionally blasting out a newsletter. To build an effective email marketing strategy, you need a tool packed with functionality. MailChimp seems to be the best system out there, offering elegant, intuitive newsletter templates, advanced list segmentation features and marketing automation capabilities.
    但关于是否会诞生另一个火爆产品,来打破关于后乔布斯时代苹果前途的质疑,库克许久以前就学会了耐心和相信自己的直觉,正如他在1998年加入正处在困境中的苹果时对质疑者置之不理一样。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 应用互联网+ 如何让环保变成智能家居 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

31省份房地产开发投资排行榜出炉 这两地超万亿元

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

建筑节能标准不断提升 环保木窗市场前景广阔

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

租房淡季 成交量却涨了

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

京东发力家居家装市场 打通线上支付与线下服务

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Iron Man was Downey’s only movie of 2013, while Johnson had one huge film, Fast & Furious 6; one big film, G.I. Joe: Retaliation; and two smaller films. Together they added up to $1.3 billion at the global box office.
  • *Writing for a Variety Series: “Last Week Tonight With John Oliver”
  • 公积金政策接连放宽 业内:刺激住房消费积极入市

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 我认为这篇文章是上篇文章“成为一个足球寡妇”的完美续篇,在这篇文章里面我分享了八大规则,其中我觉得第六条最重要。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 这款智能产品的使用可以追溯到1800年,但在2016年它才变得“智能”。 Meet Peggy,这种洗衣挂钩能够“帮助你减轻负担”,它会在洗衣机洗好衣服的时候提醒你,并告诉你天气是否适宜晾晒衣服。该装置连接到您的手机,它会在天气变化或是需要转移晾衣服的地方时发消息提醒你。
    Hua Xu Yin
    马纳尔·阿尔-谢里夫最有名的,是挑战她的祖国压制女性的法律和习俗。
  • Han said on his social media that he only designed the original version of the mascot, which is the ink painting, but didn't participate in the 3D model design. "Of course we believe the ugly stuff has nothing to do with you," Web users said, responding to the respected artist.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 将第1题到第9题的分数相加,计算自己在“消极情感”维度的得分。
  • 粤港澳大湾区 民营企业人才需求旺盛
  • Salary three years after graduation and salary increase are the main criteria, each accounting for 20 per cent of the ranking’s weight. Most schools in the top 25 score well on at least one of these criteria. The top 10 schools would mostly also rank in the first 10 if salaries and their increases were excluded. The only exceptions are Nanyang Business School and China Europe International Business School, both underperforming in the doctoral and research ranks.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 年内房价将小幅走高 房地产投资将会继续减速
  • Household substance abuse
  • 外来品牌开发商抱团 或加剧东莞楼市“马太效应”
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

个税起征点提至5000元有望10月实现

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 软体家具新国标年内出台
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 河北省长张庆伟:压减钢铁产能 将关停60%企业
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

“她和我实在长得太像了,”卡尔森说,“每次我看这部电影都觉得很诡异,好像自己在看自己一样,让人感到有点毛骨悚然。”

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

历史学家希望解开有关理查三世的谜团,公开证据以反驳他杀害了两个年轻侄子的说法,重点关注他在位两年期间的成就,包括建立了保释制度和法律援助制度。
Homeowners in neighborhoods like the Grand Concourse in the Bronx or Elmhurst in Queens could enjoy new attention from buyers eager to find the next untapped market. “When have you heard talk about Kingsbridge in the Bronx?” asked Ms. Ramirez of Halstead. “The people who are smart are getting out there and buying it up at wonderful prices.”
[in'geid?d]
CareerCast.com, a career website owned by Adicio Inc., ranked 200 jobs from best to worst based on five criteria: physical demands, work environment, income, stress, and hiring outlook. The firm used data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and other government agencies to determine the rankings. As in prior years, the 200 jobs were selected for their relevance in the current labor market as well as the availability of reliable data.
尽管这些物质都十分微小,但相关科研成果的意义却是巨大的。
公众宗教研究机构与宗教新闻通讯社联合开展的这项调查显示,不同政治派别和不同宗教信仰的人们对于恶劣天气的观念存在分歧,今年已经发生了多起严重的高温和干旱灾害。
据国家新闻出版广电总局介绍,自2003年以来,中国这一世界第二大电影市场的票房总额平均逐年增长35%。仅仅在2015年,这一数字就猛增了48.7%。
恭贺新禧,万事如意。
今年,我最喜欢的人物报道可能是Kiki Zhao对中国目前读者最多的诗人之一余秀华激动人心的描写。余秀华是一个了不起的人。她患有脑瘫,过去41年里大部分时间生活在农村,在一张矮桌子上写作。高中没毕业的她说自己“在能读它们(名著)之前,我就知道如何写作了”。现在,她受邀前往斯坦福大学等地,她不愿被比作艾米丽·迪金森(Emily Dickinson)。
It pours the perfect pint from the bottom of the glass.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

国税总局:已有800万纳税人开始填报专项附加扣除信息

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 8.轮滑
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • There were multiple instances of the glamourous royalty keeping Canadians waiting, including the arrival, where the family took a whole 20 minutes to disembark in order to be greeted by the Canadian welcome party.
  • 北京首批限价房项目面世 北京将迎限价房供应高峰
  • Here's how the pay of prime ministers and presidents of the world's biggest economies stacks up, according to official data and converted into US dollars at market rates.
  • 最高法谈视觉中国事件: 不能仅以水印认定照片权属
  • Forbes found 1,810 billionaires this year, down from last year's record of 1,826. The aggregate net worth of the billionaires was 6.48trillion dollars, 570billion dollars less than last year.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 佛企看中后续市场开拓 东莞家具展当了“捡漏王”
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 奥巴马取得胜利,也以为着在接下来四年的发展道路:关于国家开支、税收、医疗健康、政府的角色,还有应对中国发展和伊朗核问题等的外交措施。
  • "All I got was an extra hour on the bus to work, but I can't get a seat at the stadium," she said as she directed cars toward a mall's parking garage in Rio's wealthy southern zone.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

陕西西安严查“租房贷”

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