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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

两乐设备是青铜做的可以追溯到2000多年前中国的汉朝(公元前206年–公元220)。

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人们可能会认为,由于课程的灵活性,与全日制项目相比,在线MBA项目将更吸引女性。然而,2016年英国《金融时报》在线MBA排行榜的数据显示,女性占总学员数量的30%。在全日制项目中,女学员占到了35%。
Fortunately, the rules are changing. The proposal of China's Central Economic Conference in early December to give rural residents permanent urban residency sent a strong signal. Premier Wen Jiabao's call in late December for the reform of the household registration system will surely speed up the process.
Peer review is an evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to those who produce the work, which helps validate research.

PRICE PER SQUARE FOOT: $395
NASA and the other American agency that maintains long-term temperature records, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, issued separate data compilations on Friday that confirmed the 2014 record. A Japanese agency had released preliminary information in early January showing 2014 as the warmest year.
7.戛纳的“女性之年”并走运

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

整体家居转型升级之困 欧派试水引争议

尽管增势坚挺,上个月年增长率还是从9月份的下跌0.8%,滑落至下跌1.4%。经济学家原本预计,在截至10月份的12个月里,日本工业产出下滑幅度为0.9%。
这条推文也是今年人们“点赞最多”的推文,收获的赞达459万个。
You might think that our love of lists could be pinned on the Ten Commandments, but Umberto Eco says otherwise. “The list is the origin of the culture,” he once said on a subject he knows well, having written a book titled “The Infinity of Lists.” And culture wants “to make infinity comprehensible” and “to create order — not always, but often,” hence Homer’s catalogs in “The Iliad” and the roll call of never-completed household chores on my fridge. “We like lists because we don’t want to die,” Mr. Eco also said, which is the best explanation of the listicle that I’ve yet read.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Henda Ayari
不会。华尔街策略师预测美国政府的10年期借贷成本将在未来一年攀升至3%以上,这话就像尴尬的办公室聚会一样是圣诞节那段时间的固定节目。鉴于美联储退出量化宽松和美国减税,今年的预测看起来更有可能实现。然而,压低通胀和长期债券收益率的长期重大因素依然存在,并且仍然被低估。2018年美联储将至少加息三次,但10年期收益率不会突破3%。
《敦刻尔克》

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 简言之,无叶风扇就是没有叶片的风扇。它的工作原理是先将空气吸入风扇基座内部,然后通过扇头环形上的洞将空气吹出。这款风扇据说是詹姆斯·戴森发明的,并命名为"气流倍增器"。就像可以飞行的喷气背包一样,无叶风扇被《时代周刊》评为"2009年度伟大发明"之一,同样它也不是世界上第一个无叶风扇。实际上,第一个无叶风扇于1981年被日本的东京芝区电力公司获得专利。尽管东京芝区电力公司的无叶风扇并没有用于生产制造,但詹姆斯的无叶风扇的原始设计与其设计相似,所以专利局拒绝授予詹姆斯这个专利。尽管授予东京芝区电力公司的专利已经过期,但在授予詹姆斯这项新专利之前,专利局需要他提供该设计的创新之处。詹姆斯的经理吉尔·斯密斯并没有否认这两种无叶风扇间的相似性,只是说两者间的差异在于所用"科技"不同。
  • 大学生中介一天:带看9套房无成交 自己也买不起
  • 单词scroll 联想记忆:
  • 4地上调最低工资标准:上海9连涨 多地年内或跟进
  • 北京:共有产权房购房发票难题十天化解
  • Together, the world’s 10 highest-paid actresses tallied a combined $205 million between June 1, 2015 and June 1, 2016, before management fees and taxes, Forbes said.
    Thank you,

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 广州质监局:对家具生产企业开展专项整治, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

房贷业务将收缩 银行资金有望流入实体经济领域

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

老家具成国内外收藏热点 断代判定难文物应保护

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Renters
    With its goal of universal healthcaresystem coverage by 2020, Chinais expected to transform the medicine market, becoming the second largest afterthe US.In the next five years, Chinaexpects per capita spending to grow by 70 percent.
  • 内衣秀以马戏表演开始,包括杂技,吞剑和踩高跷。然后贾斯汀比伯,蕾哈娜和布鲁斯马斯登场。
    Stand: Coca-Cola CEO Muhtar Kent called for immigration reform
    If you want a refrigerator with a screen, might as well just stick an iPad on it. Samsung unveiled a smart refrigerator this summer that connects to wi-fi to help manage groceries and leave notes behind for family members.
    根据《人民日报》的一份报告,截至2016年年底,中国的电影银幕已达到41179块,另外新增1612家电影院和9552块电影银幕。
    今年,该学校首次跻身前20强。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • (两会受权发布)李克强谈2019年经济社会发展总体要求
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 2014年建材家居产业规模将达4万亿 需破五大发展瓶颈

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

单词appearance 联想记忆:
NATO’s bombing campaign began on March 24 1999 after peace talks meant to stop the persecution of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo collapsed. Targets in both Yugoslavia and Kosovo were struck—first the Serb air defense network that opposed NATO planes then a broader target array including Yugoslav army forces said to be directly involved in the persecution of Kosovars. The target list also included political-military targets inside the Yugoslav capital of Belgrade itself.
国内生产总值增长6.5%左右,在实际工作中争取更好结果;
调查结果显示,今年大约有9.8%的应届毕业生选择“慢就业”。所谓的“慢就业”是指一些毕业生不着急就业,而是选择旅游、在家陪父母以及继续等待机会自主创业等方式,慢慢考虑人生道路的现象。
Hartz started Eventbrite, an online ticketing platform, with her now-husband Kevin in 2006. Since its founding, the company has raised $140 million from firms like Sequoia Capital and Tiger Global Management and reached $2 billion in gross ticket sales this September. Entrepreneurship forced Hartz to appreciate candid and collaborative conversations. "I had to learn how to ask for help," she says. "Everyone always thinks it's brave to go out alone, but I think it's even braver to put yourself out there in front of others, and to figure out how to work together."
Mazda wins the award for Best Car Brand. The automotive press has always loved Mazdas for their performance, but the Mazda cars on the road today earn positive reviews for their well-made interiors as well as their athletic driving dynamics. The 2016 Mazda3, pictured here, is in the top tier of the U.S. News compact car rankings, with most car reviewers recommending it for its nimble handling, strong acceleration and upscale interior.
A lot of people study better with others. If that's you, form a study group in your class or join one that's already organized.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • “Given the unfavourable reaction to the August depreciation, we think any further depreciation will not take place soon,” said Louis Kuijs, an economist at Oxford Economics based in Hong Kong. “In our view the October trade data keep pressure on [the government] for more domestic easing.”
  • 中国成为美国阔叶木产品最大进口市场
  • 这家总部位于伊利诺伊州皮奥利亚的重型机械制造商于1月份批准了100亿美元的股票回购,预计将在今年一季度回购17亿股股票,以完成先前75亿美元的回购计划。公司CEO道格o奥伯赫尔曼表示,正在进行的回购是“我们的现金流创纪录的结果”。(财富中文网)
    在2010年世界杯中,智利当属最振奋人心的一支队伍,并在最近的温布利比赛中让英格兰队在赛场上四处兜转,不过,如果哥伦比亚队能够融合射手拉达梅尔·法尔考(Radamel Falcao),那么这支队可能会让一两支队伍神伤了。因此,在所有的南美洲球队中,似乎只有厄瓜多尔难以走出小组赛,而其余的所有国家都有能力奋战到后面的阶段。
  • 南京:二手房成交周期延长
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 来源:前十网
    Last question: a lot of thework you've donebrings out a lot of strong emotions in a way that it kind of questions themorality of heroism and justice. Is there anything related to you that makes us think of ourselves being a hero or yourself as one?
  • 当你在求职布告栏比如Monster或者Indeed发布你的简历时,你现在的雇主是可有机会看到你的简历的。Foss说很多人事和经理经常在求职栏搜索职工的名字看他们是不是在找工作。
    《蜘蛛侠:英雄归来》
  • 简言之,无叶风扇就是没有叶片的风扇。它的工作原理是先将空气吸入风扇基座内部,然后通过扇头环形上的洞将空气吹出。这款风扇据说是詹姆斯·戴森发明的,并命名为"气流倍增器"。就像可以飞行的喷气背包一样,无叶风扇被《时代周刊》评为"2009年度伟大发明"之一,同样它也不是世界上第一个无叶风扇。实际上,第一个无叶风扇于1981年被日本的东京芝区电力公司获得专利。尽管东京芝区电力公司的无叶风扇并没有用于生产制造,但詹姆斯的无叶风扇的原始设计与其设计相似,所以专利局拒绝授予詹姆斯这个专利。尽管授予东京芝区电力公司的专利已经过期,但在授予詹姆斯这项新专利之前,专利局需要他提供该设计的创新之处。詹姆斯的经理吉尔·斯密斯并没有否认这两种无叶风扇间的相似性,只是说两者间的差异在于所用"科技"不同。
    近日,某招聘行业网站发布《2016年应届毕业生就业力调研报告》。报告指出,2016年应届毕业生起薪为4765元,近三成毕业生进入互联网行业,同时互联网行业的平均月薪最高。
  • 同时,罹患痛风的人升高了大约1/3,这个病在维多利亚时期的伦敦一度被视作“富贵病”,现在更倾向于认为与缺乏锻炼有关。
    v. 强调,着重
    But nearly two-thirds (65 percent) of white evangelical Protestants say they think the storms are evidence of the "end times" as predicted by the Bible.
  • 无论是电视剧,还是正在拍摄的电影版本,都是改编自台湾大宇公司旗下著名的角色扮演游戏(RPG)《仙剑奇侠传》系列。这款电子游戏也被许多玩家视为中国最棒的角色扮演游戏。
    如果一部情景喜剧播出10年堪称流行,那么播出20年后依旧令无数人挂怀的电视剧则是经典。《老友记》1994年在美国首播,讲述了六个生活在纽约的青年男女的故事。现在,该剧已经是最著名的情景喜剧之一,在全球超过100多个国家和地区播出。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 31省区市联动招聘高校毕业生 秋季将办600多场现场招聘会 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

习近平在江西考察并主持召开推动中部地区崛起工作座谈会

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

一周除甲醛不靠谱 检测不靠谱售后没保证

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

2018年:环保将强制成为涂料行业新门槛

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

国家统计局:5月份国民经济持续稳中向好

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 这是充满希望的春天,也是令人绝望的寒冬……
  • 优化区域发展格局。
  • 10月大户型住宅销售降温 四季度楼市或迎暖冬

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • stable
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • China has fully complied with UN resolutions on the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, and is a staunch supporter of upholding the international nuclear non-proliferation regime.
    继《菲洛梅娜》后,朱迪.丹克和斯蒂芬.弗雷斯这对出色的组合四年后再度联手。该片由李荷担任编剧,讲述了维多利亚女王与年轻印度男仆之间的友情。艾迪.伊扎德看来是官方授意的威尔士亲王人选;演员阵容还包括奥莉维亚.威廉姆斯,蒂姆.皮戈特.史密斯以及同样出演了《总督之房》的西蒙.卡洛和迈克尔.甘本。
    Making the cut for the first time, Gigi, 22, and Bella Hadid, 21, are ranked at number five and number nine respectively, with the former making $9.5 million and the younger sibling taking in $6 million.
  • 另一种看法是,油价在过去三年中的变动,是长期结构性变化的开始,预示着下一个50年里,能源价格按实际值计算将显著低于上一个50年。简单地说,持这种看法的人认为,供给的增长潜力超过需求增长。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 每天向大家推送短小精悍的英语学习资料.
  • 通州区对口帮扶区域产业发展推介大会在通召开 助力蒙东三旗打赢脱贫攻坚战
  • 3. Tablets meet viruses.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 4月建材家居景气指数破百 环比上升10.95点
  • Household substance abuse
  • 低利率时代购买房产成本下降 用足贷款更划算
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

大量新盘即将入场 房地产市场面临真正的考验

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 银川市探索土地托管促“节本增效” 资金压力和人才短缺日益凸显
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • (受权发布)中共中央 国务院 印发《乡村振兴战略规划(2018-2022年)》(9)
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Notably, the domain name for the top fake news story of the year is “abcnews.com.co.” In a November interview with The Verge, Professor Nicole A. Cooke of the University of Illinois’ School of Information Sciences cited the slight modification of familiar domains as a particularly dangerous and common tactic for fake news sites. They make the source look reputable at first glance. The man who operates abcnews.com.co told The Washington Post that he believes his websites were a key factor in the election of Donald Trump.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

A sub-index tracking activity at larger enterprises softened 0.7 points to 53.1, while mid-sized companies fell 1.3 points to 49.9, indicating slight contraction. That for smaller manufacturers fell 0.4 points to 49, indicating worsening contraction.
entertainment
首先,正如咨询与培训机构RedPrairie公司的供应链专家汤姆?科赞斯基所言,一提到物流行业,多数人都觉得它“没有吸引力”,是一项乏味且薪水不高的仓储工作。
The average entrepreneur uses dozens of cloud-based software and apps. Zapier connects your online life and helps you build new functionality. The best part about Zapier is that you don’t have to be an API wizard to use it.
Yes. Mr Modi’s overnight ban on using high-value bank notes was a big shock, and seriously disrupted the economy. But it delivered rich political rewards, bolstering the premier’s image as a decisive leader willing to take tough action against corruption. With the next general elections due in 2019, Mr Modi will be tempted to deliver one more big bang to dazzle voters. Watch out for dramatic action against wealthy individuals holding properties in others’ names to hide their ownership.
中俄双方经贸合作的潜力很大,互补性很强,双方所达成的经贸关系目标是可以实现的。
2016的很多电影都会有很好的票房号召力,但人们迫不及待想要观看的其实只有那么几部。
['s?m?ri]
……又唱又跳,希望能得到工作。
5. 《在杰克逊高地》(In Jackson Heights)。杰出的弗里德里克·怀斯曼(Frederick Wiseman)带来的三个多小时的新作;这或许可以解释为什么奥斯卡奖的蠢材们再一次没有把他加入候选名单。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

多地去库存政策发力 楼市成交料稳中有升

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Nirvana in Fire unexpectedly achieved a tremendous success, rising like a star among the TV dramas in the fall of 2015. Also adapted from an online novel of the same name written by Hai Yan, the adaptation for the first time found its way on the screen in September 2015. Staring Hu Ge and Liu Tao, the series shows a talented military strategist endeavoring to clear his name through continuous fights. The fictional characters and dynasty let the adaptation smartly avoid being criticized for not sticking to historical accuracy. And the drama`s delicate internal settings and impeccable storyline were highly praised by the audiences.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 娱乐时尚:性感林赛罗韩大"血拼"
  • 5月 限竞房销售新规落地
  • 射箭、射击、铁人三项、现代五项ykXdDI-D*%c]。
  • 工地上有安全隐患? 建筑工人可微信举报
  • 玛丽?芭拉从通用汽车的第三把交椅升至第一把交椅,获得首席执行官提名,这一路上她突破了好几个历史性障碍。一方面,通过任命一位非执行主席掌管董事会,她能更容易打开工作局面;但另一方面,由于一位对手接手了她以前的职责,她现在的工作又变得更棘手了。她是二十年来首位掌管公司的产品工程师,各种建议势必将纷至沓来,令人应接不暇。这些建议小到新皮卡上的空调出风口,大到别克(Buick)和雪佛兰(Chevrolet)这些品牌的前景,无所不包。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 三线城市房价创6年来单月环比最大涨幅
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • charity
  • The Journey of Flower

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

岁末新房成交量跳高 今年楼市主基调仍为“分化“

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